Member Institutes of JARA-FIT
Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, Electronic Systems (ZEA-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich & (ITMC) Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University
Our research revolves around spin order generation, the manipulation, measurement and transfer of spin order by combining Hyperpolarization technology with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Starting from states with high spin orders, like nuclear singlet states or highly premagnetized (hyperpolarized) spin systems, we investigate the field dependancy of the complexity, and thus information content, of corresponding NMR spectra in very low magnetic fields. Our research includes chemical synthesis as a means for substrate generation and optimization of spin order transfer, the development and construction of new hardware for mobile NMR spectroscopy as well as the investigation of the underlying quantum mechanical principles of coupled spins in low magnetic fields.
Prof. Dr. Stefan Appelt Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, Electronic Systems (ZEA-2),
(ITMC) Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University
Chair of Micro- and Nanosystems & Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1, RWTH Aachen University
The institute´s activities are focused on the development of micro- and nanosystems for biomedical and life science as well as for environmental sensing and industry 4.0 applications. There is a strong aspect of developing and using 2D materials and heterostructures as thin films and as nanostructured, optoelectronic active elements in micro- and nanosystems. The team also focusses on fundamental science apsects with particular emphasize to material combinations in sensors. Main activities lie on coupling of biological systems such as living cells to technical systems, development of "intelligent" implants and prostheses and micro fluidic systems for biotechnology and biomedical diagnostics. The institute has a strong focus on biosensor development and applications for various aspects and has established collaborations with many national and international partners. For the development of micro- and Nanosystems, thin film technologies, silicon micromechanics, micro electroplating, nanoimprint lithography as well as advanced packaging technologies are used in a clean room area of about 1000 m2. This infrastructure is complemented with interdisciplinary technology laboratories of about 300 m2 including electronic and biosensor laboratories and an S1 cell culture laboratory for electrophysiology and cell-sensor coupling experiments.
Chair of Semiconductor Electronics and Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University
The institute carries out research on semiconductor technology and device with a special focus on low power and energy harvesting technologies with the long-term vision of energy autonomous systems. To be specific, we work on nanoelectronics transistor devices based on Si- and III-V nanowires as well as on carbon nanotubes and graphene particularly aiming at a realization of so-called steep slope switches that enable a significant reduction of the power consumption of highly integrated circuits. In addition, the institute has broad experience in the science and engineering of Si wafer-based solar cells and also performs research on Si-based third generation photovoltaic cells. A combination of our know-how in micro- and nanotechnology with the solar cell technology is used to investigate and realize novel concepts for energy harvesting and storage based e.g. on efficient direct solar water splitting.
Chair of Solid-State and Quantum Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University
The chair is specialized in the fields of synthetic and quantum-theoretical solid-state chemistry, bordering with materials science, physics, and crystallography. In detail, we synthesize novel, sometimes extremely sensitive, compounds (nitrides, carbodiimides, guanidinates, intermetallics, small molecules etc.) and elucidate their compositions and crystal structures by means of X-ray and neutron diffractional techniques. The characterization of their physical properties such as electronic transport and magnetism also plays an important role.
We regularly perform solid-state quantum-chemical calculations from first principles to yield the electronic structures and to extract the important chemical bonding information needed to thoroughly understand the interplay between chemistry and physics (LOBSTER code). In particular, ab initio steel, phase-change materials, phase prediction, theoretical thermochemistry, and finite-temperature vibrational properties (ab initio ORTEP) are being studied. In addition, we are engaged in constructing the POWTEX time-of-flight neutron diffractometer at Garching.
Chair for Technology of Optical Systems TOS, RWTH Aachen University & Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Aachen
Extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV, 1-50 nm, or EUV at 13.5 nm) enables new optical, analytical and manufacturing technologies because of its characteristic interaction with matter, its short wavelength and recent progress on light sources and optical components (e.g. EUV lithography). XUV tools are already deployed by the semiconductor industry, which significantly pushes the further development of XUV technology. Future applications which will support scientific progress in a variety of fields such as nanoelectronics or biotechnology are also within the scope of our research. Activities include structuring on a nanometer scale using interference lithography, XUV microscopy for imaging of dynamic processes or at-wavelength inspection of multilayer mask-blanks for hidden defects, and characterization of thin film coated surfaces using grazing-incidence reflectometry. Moreover, in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology in Aachen different concepts of XUV sources are investigated and experimentally realised.
Compound Semiconductor Technology, RWTH Aachen University
GaN Device Technology is performing fundamental and application-oriented research on the deposition and characterization of compound and organic semiconductor materials as well as on electronic and optoelectronic devices. Major research goals are the development of energy-efficient devices for power and RF electronics, displays, solid-state lighting and next-generation photovoltaics.The III-nitride activities include investigation and development of practical technological building blocks for (opto-)electronic devices and also address fundamental issues of materials growth and device physics. In the field of organic semiconductors, we focus on deposition technologies like organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), device processing and the development of advanced OLED structures. A special focus is on hybrid structures and the specific properties of inorganic-organic heterojunctions for photovoltaics.
Department of Chemistry (IPC), RWTH Aachen University
The institute’s research activities are based on its competence in the physical chemistry of solids with a special emphasis on defects and diffusion in inorganic solids, in particular oxides. Within JARA-FIT two major fields are addressed. (1) Ionic transport: transport of oxygen ions in the bulk, across and along grain boundaries and in space charge zones is investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. (2) Electronic transport: amorphous and highly non-stoichiometric oxides are investigated concerning correlations between structure, electrical conductivity, and electronic structure with a view to applications in resistive switching.
Department of Mathematics I, RWTH Aachen University
The research at our institute has a focus on nonlinear partial differential equations from mathematical physics and materials science. We are particularly interested in the emergence and dynamics of patterns and topological solitons in models from micromagnetics and Ginzburg‐Landau theory. Using tools from functional and multiscale analysis, our aim is to capture the qualitative behavior of solutions to such complex theories and, if possible, to identify simpler models, whose behavior is easier to understand or simulate.
GFE – Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University & Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich
GFE is a central facility of RWTH Aachen University and has state-of-the-art equipment in the fields of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, focused ion beam instruments and atomic force microscopy. GFE provides services for a large number of institutes from RWTH Aachen University and a broad range of industrial companies. In the field of information technology, GFE participates in research projects on nonvolatile memories and on nanoscale CMOS devices. The head of the GFE is co-director of the Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and coordinates the RWTH user activities and contribution to the Centre.
Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University
The institute's research profile covers the topics synthesis, structure and properties of novel materials. The synthetic activities include the preparation of new or crystal-chemically modified compounds with interesting properties in bulk poly- or single-crystalline form. Crystal and magnetic structures are studied by powder and single crystal X-ray as well as neutron diffraction methods (outstation at FRM-II/Garching) with special emphasis on complex, defect dominated systems such as partially disordered, incommensurately modulated structures and composite crystals. Among the materials recently studied are superconductors (modulated CaAlSi), fullerenes (C70 high pressure polymer), spin-chain-compounds (vanadates and cuprates) and pyroxene-type multiferroics.
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (IAC), RWTH Aachen University
Our research is devoted to electrofunctional and biofunctional inorganic nanostructures.
One focus is on the wet chemical preparation and characterization of tailored ligand stabilized metal nanoparticles. The utilization of these structures as building blocks for nanoelectronic devices is surveyed. Therefore, molecules exhibiting distinct functionalities, e.g. diode-like characteristics or molecules allowing self-organization are applied in order to access new functional properties. Another focus is on the preparation and characterization of metal oxide and chalcogenide nanostructures. These nanostructures are investigated with respect to their application as resistively switching materials for future electronics but also as cathode materials for metal-air or metal-ion batteries. Furthermore, zeolite based materials are modified and investigated in terms of their catalytic activity in exhaust gas aftertreatment.
Our characterization methods conventional spectroscopic techniques, such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, dynamic light scattering. Additionally, more sophisticated techniques like surface enhanced Raman scattering, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, electron microscopy as well as a collection of electrical and electrochemical d.c. and a.c. measurements, complemented by locally resolved electrical transport measurements are applied.
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry - Molecular magnetism, RWTH Aachen University & Peter Grünberg Institut – Electronic Properties (Molecular magnetism), Forschungszentrum Jülich
The Molecular Magnetism Group focuses on the chemistry and fundamental physics of discrete and networked magnetically functionalized inorganic molecules. Based on its experience with the control and understanding of magnetic characteristics of purely molecular origin, the group synthesizes magnetic materials based on transition metal clusters that exhibit a complex interplay of charge transport and static/ dynamic magnetic properties such as phase transitions, hysteresis, or quantum tunneling. To functionally combine magnetic state switching and charge transport in systems for FIT spintronic devices, the molecule-surface interface is addressed, in particular employing pre-synthesized contact groups for precise electrical access to an individual molecule in e.g. a gated environment.
Institute of Integrated Photonics, RWTH Aachen University
Integration of photonic components and systems in Silicon allows the realization of complex optical systems at the chip scale. At the Institute of Integrated Photonics we are working on the development of Silicon Photonics devices and systems with activities ranging from material science, core device development to system integration. Current activities focus on the development of cost effective, compact and low power electro-optic transceivers based on semiconductor mode-locked lasers, low power and low drive voltage electro-optic modulators, integrated light sources (on-chip comb generation with parametric conversion, GeSn based light sources), and misalignment tolerant fiber-to-chip and laser-to-chip couplers, as well as visible wavelength SiN based photonic integrated circuits for life science applications.
Institute for Materials in Electrical Engineering 2, RWTH Aachen University & Peter Grünberg Institut - Electronic Materials, Forschungszentrum Jülich
We focus on the physics and chemistry of electronic oxides and organic molecules, which are promising for potential memory, logic, and sensor functions. Our research aims at a fundamental understanding of nanoelectronic functions based on electrochemical redox processes, memristive phenomena, space charge effects, and ferroelectricity and at the elucidation of their potential for future device applications, in particular for neuromorphic computing. For this purpose, our institute provides a broad spectrum of facilities ranging from dedicated material synthesis, atomically controlled film deposition methods, molecular self-assembly routes, and integration technologies, to the characterization of processes, structures, and electronic properties with atomic resolution.
Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM 6) and Institute for Advanced Simulation – Theoretical Neuroscience (IAS 6), Forschungszentrum Jülich
The institute is specialized in the integration of experimental data on the structure and the dynamics of the brain into mathematical models and in overcoming bottlenecks in simulation technology and scientific workflows. The group “Statistical Neuroscience” led by Sonja Grün focuses on the development and application of methods to analyze multi-channel activity data in close contact to experimental groups. A focus is the connection between neuronal activity data recorded on different temporal and spatial scales and on the structure of correlations of spiking activity. The group “Theoretical Neuroanatomy” headed by van Albada focuses on the collation and analysis of microscopic and macroscopic anatomical data, informing large-scale dynamical models of the mammalian brain at cellular and synaptic resolution that are simulated using supercomputers. Comparison of the model dynamics with experimentally measured activity further constrains the inferred connectivity. The group “Computational Neurophysics” headed by Markus Diesmann focuses on bottom-up approaches in order to integrate physiological and anatomical data into models. This also requires the development of simulation technology for neural networks. The group “Computation in Neural Circuits” led by Abigail Morrison investigates mechanisms underlying neural computation through the development of models on the level of networks of spiking neurons. It applies a predominantly top-down approach to discover functional constraints on structure, plasticity and dynamics, particularly with respect to learning and memory. The secondary focus is on simulation technology for high-performance computers. Recent research indicated that a much deeper understanding of the correlation structure of neuronal networks may be possible by the import of theoretical tools of modern physics into neuroscience, and a systematization of the theory of neuronal networks. To this end, the group “Theory of Multi-Scale Neuronal Networks” (Helias) focuses on the investigation of mechanisms shaping the correlated and oscillatory activity in neuronal networks with structured connectivity on several spatial scales. This requires the development of quantitative theoretical descriptions, adapted from statistical physics, combined with direct simulations of neuronal networks at cellular resolution. The Bernstein Coordination Site (BCOS) headed by Alexandra Stein, located at the University of Freiburg, is an administrative unit that coordinates the activities of the national Bernstein Network Computational Neuroscience.
Institute for Quantum Technology, RWTH Aachen University
Operationally, the quantum technology group is the experimental part of the JARA-Institute for Quantum Information. In addition to the quantum computing related activities mentioned above, it is pursuing scanning SQUID microscopy at ultra-low temperatures for magnetic imaging and ultra-sensitive magnetic measurements on mesoscopic structures.
I. Institute of Physics (IA), RWTH Aachen University
The institute’s research activities are focused on the development of novel materials for advanced optoelectronic applications. In particular, materials for optical and electronic data storage have been developed in the last few years. For this class of materials, so-called phase change materials, we have established design rules and an atomistic understanding of essential material properties. This work has enabled novel functionalities of phase change materials in applications as non-volatile memories and is part of the SFB 917 (Nanoswitches). Recently, we could demonstrate that some crystalline phase change materials can possess very high levels of disorder, which gives rise to highly unconventional transport properties. Organic materials are a second focus, where we work on routes to tailor material properties for optoelectronic applications ranging from displays, to solar cells and electronic devices.
I. Institute of Physics (IA), "Nano-Optics & Metamaterials", RWTH Aachen University
Our research is focused on the development and application of new infrared imaging and spectroscopic techniques with enhanced resolution and sensitivity. Specifically, we use and further develop scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) and related concepts like superlenses for imaging and spectroscopy below the diffraction limit of light. The use of infrared light enables us to gain information on the local chemical composition, the structural properties and the distribution of free carriers in individual nanostructures at nanoscale resolution. Additionally, we explore the use of resonant nanostructures to enhance the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy and to create actively tunable optical devices by combining them with phase-change materials.
2nd Institute of Physics B, RWTH Aachen University
Our research activities are focused on 2D materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, we are interested in combining these materials to create so-called van der Waals heterostructures. In these systems we investigate, for example, charge transport through both 1D and 0D structures (nanoribbons and quantum dots), ballistic transport, proximity-induced superconductivity, spin dynamics. Furthermore, we develop nanoelectromechanical systems, which allows to investigate the interaction between charge and mechanical degrees of freedom. Finally, we also use optical techniques such as confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate strain-induced phenomena in graphene or the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect to investigate spin dynamics in 2D semiconductors. Potential applications of our research include ultra-fast electronics, new spin-based nanoelectronic device concepts and applied quantum technologies.
2nd Institute of Physics B, Scanning probe methods, RWTH Aachen University
The research group develops scanning probe methods working in particular at low temperatures down to 0.3 K and in high magnetic fields up to 14 T in order to investigate the electronic structure of interacting electron systems and systems relevant for nanoelectronic applications. Thereby, we exploit the advantage of mapping the electronic structure down to the atomic scale at an energy resolution down to 0.1 meV, but also use the scanning probes for the excitement of the systems under study, which is probed with ps time resolution. Current topics of interest are topological insulators and Majorana fermions, electronic and mechanic properties of graphene, quantum Hall physics in graphene and III-V-materials, confined wave functions in quantum dots, nanomagnetic systems, and phase change materials.
2nd Institute of Physics B, X-ray scattering and phase transformations, RWTH Aachen University
Our research is centered at the investigation of nanoscale structures and fluctuations, with focus on nanoparticles, polymer-based nanocomposites and ferroic materials. Of particular interest are phase transitions in smart materials like shape memory alloys. The main experimental tools are X-ray scattering and acoustic emission spectroscopy. We use both laboratory tubes and international synchrotron facilities for X-ray experiments. Core techniques are small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), grazing incidence scattering (GISAXS and reflectometry), and photon correlation spectroscopy using coherent X-rays (XPCS).
Institute for Theoretical Solid State Physics, RWTH Aachen University
The research groups in this institute study many-particle interactions in solids, ranging from quantum effects in magnetic systems over electron correlation effects leading to unconventional superconductivity and magnetism to the dynamics of structural phase transitions. Recent work has focused on interaction effects in graphene systems, topological insulators, pnictide high-temperature superconductors and chalcogenide phase-change materials. The powerful theoretical methods employed and developed here comprise quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the functional renormalization group, density-functional theory and molecular dynamics.
Prof. Dr. Carsten Honerkamp Many-fermion systems and fRG
Prof. Dr. Stefan Wessel Strongly correlated quantum systems
Institute for Theory of Statistical Physics, RWTH Aachen University
The members of the institute are investigating the spectral and transport properties of low-dimensional quantum systems in contact with heat and particle reservoirs. The research focuses on the development of many-body methods for strongly correlated mesoscopic systems in nonequilibrium (quantum field theory and renormalization group in nonequilibrium) as well as on the application to experimentally realizable physical systems like semiconductor quantum dots, quantum wires (e.g. carbon nanotubes), and molecular systems.
JARA-FIT Institute for Energy-efficient Information Technology (Green IT), RTWH Aachen University and Forschungszentrum Jülich
The institute develops novel devices and architecture concepts for merging logic and storage components on computer chips. The institute bring together expertise from physics, nanotechnology and electrical engineering in Jülich and Aachen in order to combine ultra-low power logic with novel energy-efficient memristive devices at the nanometer-scale.
Prof. Dr. Detlev Grützmacher
Prof. Dr. Rainer Waser
Prof. Dr. Matthias Wuttig
JARA-FIT Institute for Quantum Information, RTWH Aachen University and Forschungszentrum Jülich
This institute combines the forces of theoretical and experimental research in quantum information science, with the overarching goal of making key advances towards to the achievement of large-scale quantum computation. In addition, many fundamental principles of quantum information are investigated here. On the theory side, new principles for the implementation of quantum computation in noisy systems, with attention on the careful design of multi-qubit couplings, are studied. This includes the investigation of Majorana qubits realized in semiconductor nanowires. Protocols for error correction codes and fault tolerance in quantum computation are investigated. New applications of the theory of quantum entanglement are developed. Both theory and experiment focuses on highly coherent two-level quantum systems in semiconductor quantum dots for quantum information processing, exploring the physics governing these devices as well as pushing forward their technological development. Key topics include high fidelity control, decoherence measurements and multi-qubit circuits.
Prof. Hendrik Bluhm
Prof. David DiVincenzo
Peter Grünberg Institute – Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich
The institute is engaged in the study of electronic and magnetic phenomena in novel materials and is one of the birthplaces of spintronics. Present research concentrates on the fundamental aspects, properties, and control of spin textures, spin transfer, and spin dynamics in a wide range of material classes down to the molecular level. The activities include the development of novel synchrotron- and laser-based microscopy and spectroscopy techniques for the study of static properties and highly dynamic processes in condensed matter systems. Further important research fields comprise nanomagnetism and molecular spintronics, which may form a bridge to quantum information processing.
Peter Grünberg Institute / Institute of Complex Systems, Bioelectronics (ICS-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich
Biological signal processing and their utilization requires investigations of correlated biological events with high spatiotemporal resolution. Our research is focused on the development of bioelectronic devices and tools which exploit biology in conjunction with electronics encompassing for example, biomaterials for information processing, sensors, actuators, and biomedical devices. A key aspect is the interface between biological materials and electronics. The two main themes are “biosensing” and “neuroelectronics”.
Peter Grünberg Institut / Institut for Advanced Simulation – Theoretical Nanoelectronics, Forschungszentrum Jülich
The behavior of interacting electrons in nano-scale structures is a primarly focus. The Kondo effect, involving the interaction of an isolated spin impurity with conduction electrons, or the formation and transport of high-spin complexes forming spin quadripoles, are particular areas of expertise. Novel computational techniques permit accurate calculations with thousands of atoms, and in complex multi-functional perovskites. Correlated electrons also form the basis of the physical creation of qubits, and the coherence and dynamics of such qubits, and mutiqubit systems, is being investigated.
Peter Grünberg Institut / Institute for Advanced Simulation – Quantum Theory of Materials, Forschungszentrum Jülich
The Institute for Scattering methods develops and uses scattering methods (neutron- as well as synchrotron x-ray-scattering) to investigate ordering phenomena and the corresponding fluctuations and excitations in (nano-) magnetic and highly correlated electron systems. We relate this microscopic information to macroscopic physical properties and functionalities to obtain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms and to optimize material systems for possible applications in future information- or energy-technologies. Research ranges across a wide spectrum, from novel quantum materials through frustrated and topological magnets, magnetic nanoparticles and thin film heterostructures to multiferroic and magnetocaloric materials.
Peter Grünberg Institut / Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Quantum Materials and Collective Phenomena (JCNS-2/PGI-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich
At the Institute of Scattering Methods, we focus on the investigation of structural and magnetic order, fluctuations and excitations in complex or nanostructured magnetic systems and highly correlated electron systems. Our research is directed at obtaining a microscopic atomic understanding based on fundamental interaction mechanisms. The aim is to relate this microscopic information to macroscopic physical properties. To achieve this ambitious goal, we employ the most advanced synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering methods and place great emphasis on the complementary use of these two probes. Some of our efforts are devoted to dedicated sample preparation and characterization from thin films and multilayers via nano-patterned structures to single crystals for a wide range of materials from metals to oxides.
Peter Grünberg Institute – Microstructure Research (PGI-5) & Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Physics of Nanoscale Systems (ER-C-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich
The institute works on topical fields in solid state physics. Strategically, two directions are followed: first, to make key contributions to the development and application of ultra-high-resolution and in situ transmission electron microscopy, with a strong focus on aberration-corrected electron optics for the highest spatial resolution quantitative imaging of structural, spectroscopic and functional properties and, second, to synthesise selected materials and to study their physical properties. Examples of materials systems that are studied are high temperature superconductors and novel complex metallic alloys. The high temperature superconductors provide the basis for the institute's work on SQuID sensors. The head of the institute is co-director of the Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons.
Peter Grünberg Institute – Quantum Nanoscience (PGI-3) , Forschungszentrum Jülich
Our research tackles fundamental issues in the quest towards functional nanostructures at surfaces, with a particular emphasis on nanoelectronics. Since our focus is placed on molecular materials, an important aspect of our work covers the structural investigations and spectroscopy of complex molecular adsorbates on metal, semiconductor and insulator surfaces. Based on these interface studies, the growth of thin films and nanostructures is investigated. Here, our work is directed towards hybrid materials, comprising both organic and inorganic components. Charge transport, being the most important function in the context of nanoelectronics, transport experiments on single molecules and nanostructures round off our activities. It is a specific asset of our institute that we combine well-established surface techniques with the development of new experimental methods.
Prof. Dr. Frank Stefan Tautz
Peter Grünberg Institute - Semiconductor Nanoelectronics (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich
The institute’s research activities are based on its competence in semiconductor heterostructure and nanostructure research, both in fundamental and device physics as well as in material and process development. They address two major fields. (1) Energy efficient information technology (Green-IT). Here compound semiconductors and group IV alloys are employed for innovative devices, to exploit novel physical phenomena and thereby contribute to progress in future optical communication, data storage and advances in nanotechnology. (2) Exploring Quantum Systems on the Nanoscale. Special emphasis is put on nanostructures consisting of semiconductors, topological insulators and other layered materials as well as hybrid structures of them with magnetic and superconducting materials for the conceptual development of devices for quantum information technology.